Nigeria’s climate has been changing, following increases in temperature, variable rainfall, rise in sea level and flooding, drought and desertification, land degradation, more frequent extreme weather events, affected freshwater resources, and loss of biodiversity.
The durations and intensities of rainfall have increased, producing large runoffs and flooding in many places in Nigeria.
Rainfall variation is projected to continue to increase and Precipitation in southern areas is expected to rise and rising sea levels are expected to exacerbate flooding and submersion of coastal lands.
Droughts have also become a constant in Nigeria and are expected to continue in Northern Nigeria, arising from a decline in precipitation and a rise in temperature.
Lake Chad and other lakes in the country are drying up and at risk of disappearing while Temperature has risen significantly since the 1980s. Climate projections for the coming decades reveal a significant increase in temperature over all the ecological zones.
There are a few comprehensive reports and papers that provide useful evidence and discussion of the various impacts of climate change throughout Nigeria.
The vast majority of the literature that provides evidence of climate change impacts and responses, however, focuses on the agricultural sector and on individual farming communities in particular regions of the country.
But what measures can Nigeria put in place for the mitigation and adaptation of the impact of climate change in the country?
A former Director-General of the Nigeria Meteorological Agency, NiMet, Dr. Anthony Anuforom explained that for Nigeria to mitigate Climate change adaptive measures like increase resilience and reduce vulnerability to extreme weather events must be put in place to protect people from climate change.
Speaking with Kapital FM in Abuja, Dr. Anuforom explained that countries of the world under the United Nations reached an agreement in 2015 in Paris that there should be a reduction of the rate of Greenhouse gases mission, like Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide order to limit global warming and ensure that it does not exceed 1.5’0C above the Pre-industrial level.
He observed that Nigeria can combat Climate Change by Enlightening learners and providing knowledge about the causes, prepares individuals and communities to cope with the impact through adaptation, and enlightening people on mitigation measures to reduce global warming.
According to the former Director-General of NiMet for Nigeria to Mitigate the Impact of Climate change state governments must integrate Climate Change education into school curricula at the various levels of education as envisaged in the National Policy on Climate Change especially states that are vulnerable to flood disasters.
Dr. Anuforom, therefore, advised state governments to liaise with NiMet and NIHSA to downscale and disseminate their forecast in local languages as part of the Climate Change education program in the states.
Meanwhile, a statement released by the World Bank indicates that climate change could force 216 million people across six world regions to migrate within their countries by 2050, with Sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 86 million.